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Things You Should Know Before Buying Liquid Filling Machine – National Standards for Acceptance

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Things You Should Know Before Buying Liquid Filling Machine, The National Standards for Quality Acceptance.

01.

Scope of application

This standard specifies the terms and definitions of

  • liquid food packaging equipment,
  • product classification, acceptance equipment,
  • acceptance technical requirements,
  • inspection methods,
  • and equipment quality determination and treatment.

This standard applies to liquid food equipment

  • aseptic packaging equipment,
  • insurance packaging equipment,
  • hot filling equipment,
  • Ultra-clean filling equipment and general packaging equipment;
  • Sterilization equipment for liquid food,
  • Filling and sealing equipment and its supporting equipment, pipes and accessories.
  • This standard does not apply to equipment for sterilization after filling and sealing of liquid food.

02.

Reference resource

The clauses in the following documents become clauses of this standard through reference in this standard. For dated references, all subsequent amendments (excluding errata content) or revisions do not apply to this standard. However, parties to agreements based on this standard are encouraged to study whether the latest versions of these documents can be used. . For undated references, the latest edition applies to this standard. [1] 

GB/T 4789.2 Microbiological inspection of food hygiene – Determination of total bacterial count

GB/T 4789.3 Microbiological Examination of Food Hygiene – Determination of Coliforms

GB/T 4789.4 Food Hygiene Microbiological Inspection Salmonella Inspection

GB/T 4789.5 Microbiological inspection of food hygiene – Shigella inspection

GB/T 4789.10 Food Hygiene Microbiological Examination Staphylococcus aureus Examination

GB/T 4789.11 Food Hygiene Microbiological Test Hemolytic Streptococcus Test

GB/T 4789.15 Microbiological Examination of Food Hygiene-Mold and Yeast Counting

GB 5226.1-2002 Safety of Machinery – Electrical Equipment of Machinery – Part 1: General Specifications (IEC 60204-1: 2000, IDT)

GB/T 5750.11 Standard Test Method for Drinking Water-Disinfectant Index

GB 14930.1 Hygiene Standard for Detergents for Food Tools and Equipment

GB 14930.2 Hygienic Standard for Detergents and Disinfectants for Food Tools and Equipment

GB 14934 Sanitary Standard for Disinfection of Food (Drinking) Utensils

GB 16798 Food Machinery Safety and Hygiene

GB 19891 Safety of Machinery – Hygienic requirements for mechanical design (GB 19891-2005, ISO 14159:2002, MOD)

JJF 1070 Quantitative Packaging Commodities Net Content Measurement and Inspection Rules

Technical Specification for Disinfection (2002 edition of the Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China)

03.

Terms and Definitions

The following terms and definitions apply to this standard. [1]

Liquid food

Foods that can flow in pipes, such as liquids, liquids with particles, and slurries.

Fresh keeping package

Pack and seal sterilized liquid food in sterilized or unsterilized containers, and use refrigeration to keep liquid food fresh and hygienic during the shelf life.

Aseptic packaging aseptic package

The sterilized liquid food is packaged and sealed in a sterilized container under aseptic conditions, so that the food can be transported and stored at room temperature during the shelf life.

Hot filling

Cool the sterilized liquid food to 83°C-95°C, fill and seal it into the container, and keep it for a certain period of time, in order to kill the microorganisms in the container and on the top cover, so that the food can be transported and stored at room temperature during the shelf life storage.

Ultra-clean filling ultra-clean filling

According to the principle of microbial fence technology and HACCP management system, use clean filling equipment and fill the sterilized qualified materials into clean packaging containers in a clean filling environment to prolong the shelf life of the product.

Note 1: The principle of microbial fence technology is to scientifically and rationally combine different fence factors that affect the survival of microorganisms in food to inhibit the microorganisms that cause food spoilage from different sides to ensure the hygiene and safety of food.

Note 2: HACCP is the abbreviation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, which is translated as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point in Chinese. It is a preventive technical management system to ensure food safety.

Breakdown

Breakdown due to mechanical and electrical failures of equipment or other reasons such as rupture and blockage of packaging materials and packaging containers.

Commercial sterilization

The packaged liquid food does not contain pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms that can proliferate at room temperature.

Low acid liquid food

Except for alcoholic beverages, sterilized liquid foods with an equilibrium pH value greater than 4.6.

Acid liquid food

Liquid food with an equilibrium pH value of less than or equal to 4.6 after sterilization.

Rejectable quality level, RQL

In sampling inspection, the lower limit of batch quality that is considered unacceptable.

Lot quality

The quality of a single submitted inspection lot (expressed as a percentage of nonconforming products or the number of nonconforming products per 100 units).

04.

product category

According to the material of liquid food packaging container, it is divided into

  • paper-based composite containers,
  • plastic and composite containers,
  • glass packaging containers,
  • Packaging equipment such as metal packaging containers.

According to the packaging characteristics of the equipment, it is divided into

  • aseptic packaging,
  • Ultra clean filling,
  • fresh-keeping packaging,
  • hot filling
  • and ordinary packaging equipment

See Appendix A for the division basis.

05.

Equipment Inspection

Equipment suppliers should do

  1. Complete the installation, commissioning and trial operation of the equipment;
  2. Train the user’s personnel to be able to independently operate the equipment and general troubleshooting;
  3. Negotiate with the user to determine the acceptance packaging materials or containers whose indicators are not lower than the corresponding national or industry standards;
  4. It will be agreed with the user whether the acceptance conditions are met.

The buyer should do

  1. The supply of water, electricity, gas, steam, packaging materials, etc. matching the technical requirements of the equipment;
  2. The production plant should comply with the corresponding national sanitation regulations, and the filling equipment is allowed to set up a separate isolation room;
  3. Provide packaged liquid food raw materials for acceptance in accordance with the provisions of Table 1
  4. Negotiate with the equipment supplier whether the acceptance conditions are met

Table 1 The total number of bacteria and the number of spores in the liquid food

ItemPackaging Equipment Category
Ordinary packaging equipmentFresh-keeping packaging equipmentHot Filling EquipmentUltra clean filling equipmentAseptic Packaging Equipment
Total number of bacteria/(CFU/mL)≤1×10^5≤1×10^5≤1×10^5≤2×10^5
Total Bacillus/(CFU/mL)≤5×10^2

06.

Acceptance technical requirements

Appearance acceptance

  1. The paint and spray layer on the non-processed surface of the equipment should be smooth, uniform in color, and should be free of obvious scratches, dirt, flow marks, blistering and other defects.
  2. The welding surface should be complete, smooth and uniform, and there should be no virtual welding or leakage in the welding seam.
  3. There should be no dripping or leakage at each connection joint.
  4. There should be no dripping phenomenon when the filling outlet of the filling equipment is close

Acceptance of materials and parts

  1. The surface material of the filling machine in contact with the filling material and packaging material shall comply with the relevant provisions of GB 16798 for food production equipment.
  2. The surface of the equipment in contact with the packaging materials and materials should be smooth, smooth, easy to clean or disinfect, corrosion-resistant, and not chemically changed with the filling materials.
  3. The raw materials and outsourced supporting parts used in the equipment should have the quality certificate of the manufacturer. If there is no quality certificate, they can be put into use only after they have passed the acceptance inspection according to the relevant product standards.
  4. The inner wall of the hopper and the material guide pipe is smooth, flat and free of dead ends. The weld bead is ground and polished, and there is no material gap. The filling device should not contaminate the filling material.
  5. Lubricants, coolants, etc. used in the equipment should not cause pollution to materials or containers.
  6. The mechanical design of the equipment should meet the requirements of GB 19891

Safety acceptance

  1. Voltage fluctuation (referring to the difference between the grid voltage provided by the user and the rated voltage of the equipment) can work normally within the range of +5%–10% of the rated voltage of the equipment.
  2. The insulation resistance measured when a voltage of 500V is applied between the power circuit wires and the protective grounding circuit should not be less than 1M ohms.
  3. The equipment should have a reliable grounding device with obvious grounding signs, and the grounding resistance should meet the requirements of 19.2 in GB 5226.1-2002.
  4. All circuit conductors of electrical equipment and the protective earth circuit should be subjected to a withstand voltage test for at least 1s.
  5. When the door of the electrical control cabinet and the filling room of the aseptic packaging equipment is not closed, the equipment cannot be turned on. There should be sound and light warnings when debugging and starting.
  6. The exposed mechanical moving parts of the equipment should be protected.
  7. When the height of the overhead passage for operators connecting each part of the equipment exceeds 1.5m, there should be guardrails on both sides, and the height of the guardrails should not be less than 1.05m.
  8. The parts of the hot surface of each equipment that may cause burns to the operator should be protected or have obvious warnings.
  9. The noise sound pressure should not exceed 82dB(A) during normal operation of the equipment, and it is allowed to not exceed 9082dB(A) in a short time.
  10. When the equipment uses ultraviolet sterilization, the operator should not look directly at the light source, and the observation window should be made of UV-blocking materials.
  11. Detergents for equipment should meet the hygiene standards specified in GB 14930.1.
  12. Detergents and disinfectants for equipment should meet the hygiene standards specified in GB 14930.2. [1]

Continuous work stability acceptance

  1. During the stability acceptance, except that soft water is allowed to replace the packaged liquid food, all other conditions are carried out according to the normal production conditions.
  2. Continuous startup for 8 hours (excluding the time required for physical sterilization, equipment cleaning, and equipment pre-sterilization), the number of downtimes should not exceed four, and the downtime caused by troubleshooting should not exceed 20min.
  3. Randomly select 10% of the batches of products that are accepted and produced for visual inspection. The appearance is inconsistent, the packaging material contamination caused by the operation of the filling equipment, the packaging is broken or leaked, the printing pattern is offset, skewed, and the top of the bottled product is. Cover defects, etc. are considered unqualified, and the unqualified quality level is RQL=30.
  4. When using chlorine-containing compounds to wash or pre-sterilize equipment or packaging containers, the residual amount of free residual chlorine should comply with the provisions of GB 14934. 10 units of products are randomly selected for inspection, and the residual amount is not allowed to exceed the standard.
  5. When using hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid to sterilize the packaging container, the residual amount of hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid should be less than or equal to 0.5mg/L. 10 units of products are randomly selected for inspection, and there should be no excess residues. [1]

Production acceptance

  1. Continuously start the machine for 3 hours under normal production conditions, and the output every 1 hour is used as an inspection batch. According to the needs of equipment acceptance, several samples are randomly selected, and three batches are selected successively. [1]
  2. Randomly select another 100 pieces from the samples drawn each time, and carry out the corresponding sealing test according to the corresponding filling product standards.
  3. Randomly select another 100 pieces from the samples drawn each time, and carry out the filling accuracy test. The filling accuracy should comply with the corresponding product standard regulations and the regulations of JJF 1070.
  4. From the samples taken each time, carry out microbiological inspection according to the provisions of Table 2, and inspect three times in total.
Table 2 Microbial indicators
ItemPackaging Equipment Category
Ordinary packaging equipmentFresh-keeping packaging equipmentHot Filling EquipmentUltra clean filling equipmentAseptic Packaging Equipment
Microbial indicatorsAccording to the hygienic standards of the corresponding packaged productsAccording to the hygienic standards of the corresponding packaged productscommercial sterilecommercial sterilecommercial sterile
RQL2020202020
Sample size for total colony determination33
Sample Size for Coliform Determination33
Sample size for pathogen testing33333
Sample size for mold and yeast enumeration33
Ac, Re in the above four determinations0,10,10,10,10,1
Sample size for microbial proliferation counts100010001000
Ac, Re when counting microbial proliferation1,21,21,2

07.

Testing method

Filling accuracy inspection

Use a balance to weigh each packaged product (box, bag, bottle, etc.) in the sample. The unit product below 1kg is accurate to 1g, and the unit product above 1kg is accurate to 2g. The measured mass is minus the packaging used for each unit product. The average mass of the material is the net weight of the packaged product. [1]
The net weight of the unit product divided by the average density of the packaged liquid food is the net content marked by volume.
The filling accuracy inspection method is carried out in accordance with the corresponding equipment standards and the provisions of JJF 1070.

Total Colony Determination

Carry out according to GB/T 4789.2.

Coliform Determination

Carry out according to GB/T 4789.3.

Salmonella test

Carry out according to GB/T 4789.4.

Shigella test

Carry out according to GB/T 4789.5.

Staphylococcus aureus test

Carry out according to GB/T 4789.10.

Hemolytic Streptococcus Test

Carry out according to GB/T 4789.11.

Mold and Yeast Count

Carry out according to GB/T 4789.15.

Microbial proliferation test

Microbial proliferation testing of liquid foods packaged in aseptic packaging, hot filling and ultra-clean filling equipment.

  1. Keep all sealed qualified samples under the conditions specified in Table 3, and then check them one by one.
  2. Visually inspect the expansion packs (boxes, bags, bottles) and leaked samples, and record the quantity.
  3. Open all the remaining samples for pH value measurement (neutral beverages are used for pH value measurement) and sensory inspection. It is detected that the difference between pH value and the pH value of the original filling material is greater than 0.2 and the sensory inspection is suspicious (such as turbidity, precipitation, color change) , smell or taste changes, etc.) samples for smear staining microscopy. Use Gram staining and microscopic examination to observe at least five visual fields to determine whether there is microbial proliferation, and record the number of samples with microbial proliferation.
  4. Add the numbers recorded in 7.9.2 and 7.9.3 to obtain the total number of unqualified samples for microbial proliferation indicators.
  5. The samples required for the inspection of pathogenic bacteria are firstly drawn from the samples with proliferation of microorganisms. When there are less than three samples with proliferation of microorganisms, they are taken from the inspection batch, so that the sample size meets the requirements in Table 2.
  6. When there is no microbial proliferation, the pathogenic bacteria test may not be carried out.
  7. The inspection of the residual amount of free residual chlorine shall be carried out according to the detection method of GB/T 5750.11.
  8. The residual amount inspection of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid shall be carried out according to the determination method in the disinfection technical specification.

Table 3 Incubating conditions of the samples

Types of liquid food
Insulation conditions
temperature/℃time/d
low acid food36±17
acidic food30±17

08.

Judgment and Handling

  1. When all the acceptance inspection items are qualified, the equipment passes the acceptance. [1]
  2. When some of the inspection items are unqualified, the equipment supplier shall conduct supplementary debugging or repair for the unqualified items, and then conduct re-inspection. After passing the inspection, the equipment shall pass the acceptance.
  3. If all inspection items are still not qualified after three supplementary inspections, the equipment cannot pass the inspection.

09.

Appendix A - Classification Standard of Liquid Food Packaging Equipment

Liquid Food Packaging Equipment

  1. Ordinary packaging equipment is equipped with basic technical equipment, which meets the hygienic standards of packaged liquid food.
  2. The fresh-keeping packaging equipment is equipped with additional sanitary equipment to limit secondary pollution and is used for the packaging of refrigerated liquid food.
  3. The hot filling equipment is filled at 83℃-95℃ to kill the microorganisms on the package and the top cover, which meets the commercial aseptic conditions and is used for the packaging of liquid food, etc. The product is shipped and stored at room temperature.
  4. Ultra-clean filling equipment According to the nature of the product, the technical performance and configuration of the ultra-clean filling equipment will be quite different, but it should meet the basic requirements of microbial fence technology and extend the shelf life of the product as its purpose.
  5. Aseptic packaging equipment Packaging equipment that complies with commercial aseptic conditions. [1]

Various equipment requirements

1. Table 1 shows the supporting requirements and sterilization efficiency (SE) requirements of various types of equipment.

ProjectPackaging Equipment Category
 Ordinary packaging equipmentFresh-keeping packaging equipmentHot Filling EquipmentUltra clean packaging equipmentAseptic Packaging Equipment
Supporting sterilization systemPasteurization or UHTUHT or otherPasteurization or UHTUHT
Sterilization Efficiency (SE)1-5 or 5-9≥5≥5≥9

Sterilization efficiency calculation formula:
SE=log (total number of microorganisms before sterilization/total number of microorganisms after sterilization)

2. Table 2 gives the basic technical requirements that all kinds of filling equipment should have

Table 2 Basic technical requirements for various types of filling equipment

Project
Packaging Equipment Category
Ordinary packaging equipmentFresh-keeping packaging equipmentHot Filling EquipmentUltra clean filling equipmentAseptic Packaging Equipment
Packaging Handlingno treatmentNo treatment or UV sterilizationCleaning or sterilizing agent sterilizationTreated with peroxides, chlorine-containing compounds or saturated steam, SE≥3Treated with peroxides, chlorine-containing compounds or saturated steam, SE ≥ 5
Pre-sterilization in the filling areawithoutwithoutwithoutTreated with peroxides, chlorine-containing compounds or saturated steam, SE≥3Treated with peroxides, chlorine-containing compounds or saturated steam, SE ≥ 5
Liquid food delivery piping and valve handlingwithoutwithoutwithoutSE≥3SE≥5

2. Table 2 gives the basic technical requirements that all kinds of filling equipment should have

Table 3 Requirements for equipment cleaning and sterilization

project
Packaging Equipment Category
Ordinary packaging equipmentFresh-keeping packaging equipmentHot Filling EquipmentUltra clean filling equipmentAseptic Packaging Equipment
filling areamanualmanualManual or COP (including chemical treatment)COP+SOPCOP+SOP, SE≥5
sterile air systemWithoutWithoutWithoutPipes and nozzles extending into the filling area are treated with steam or hydrogen peroxide vapor, SE≥5Pipes and nozzles extending into the filling area are treated with steam or hydrogen peroxide vapor, SE≥5
Material conveying system (filling head, channel, valve)Manual or CIPCIPCIPCIP+SIP (using superheated water or saturated steam) SE≥5CIP+SIP (using superheated water or saturated steam) SE≥5
outside areamanualmanualmanualmanualmanual
The COP+SOP operation may not be carried out when the filling area is small, or when there is no requirement for the product to be filled.

4. Table 4 gives the requirements for sterilization and filling kits

Table 4 Requirements for Sterilization and Filling Kits

project
Packaging Equipment Category
Ordinary packaging equipmentFresh-keeping packaging equipmentHot Filling EquipmentUltra clean filling equipmentAseptic Packaging Equipment
The total number of bacteria on the food contact surface of the packaging material≤1CFU/cm^2≤1CFU/cm^2<20CFU/cm^2<20CFU/cm^2
Total bacteria on food contact surfaces of formed packaging (bottles)≤25CFU/100mL volume≤25CFU/100mL volume≤25CFU/100mL volumeLarge bags for aseptic packaging should be sterilized by irradiation, other packaging containers ≤ 25CFU/100mL volume
Sterile filter filtration accuracy≤0.3μm≤0.3μm
Hygiene requirements when there are other equipment between sterilization and filling equipment (pumps, valves, storage tanks, homogenizers, etc.)Sanitarysterile grade

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