- Plastic bottle rinsing, filling and capping machine: it can automatically rinse, fill and capping the bottles, and is a packaging machine combined by mechanical means.
- Production capacity: when the filling and capping machine is running stably, the quantity of finished products produced per unit time is expressed in bottles per hour.
- Production efficiency: when the machine is producing steadily, the ratio between the number of products produced in the effective unit time and the rated production capacity of the equipment, expressed as a percentage.
- Residual water: The amount of water that remains in the bottle after rinsing.
- Filling accuracy: quantitative index of the deviation degree between the net content of the filled liquid in the finished bottle and the standard value.
- Liquid losing ratio: During the normal working process of the filling machine, the percentage of the total loss of filling liquid and the total amount of filling liquid.
- bottle damaged ratio: the percentage of the number of damaged bottles to the total number of bottles used in the normal operation of the filling machine.
- cap damaged ratio: the percentage of the number of damaged caps to the total number of caps used in the normal working process of the filling and capping machine.
- Finished product: the product formed after rinsing, filling and capping.
- Qualified ratio: Under the condition that the cap opening torque and sealing test are qualified, the percentage of the number of finished products whose appearance and filling liquid level difference test are qualified and the total number of finished products inspected.
- Filling liquid contact area: The mechanical surface exposed to the filling liquid through which the filling liquid or material will flow, drip, permeate, or be absorbed into the filling liquid or container.
- Splash area: The surface on which the filling liquid may splash, or inflow, under the intended conditions of use, as well as the surface on which it comes into contact with the non-reused filling liquid.
- non filling liquid contact area: except for Areas outside the contact and splash zones of the filled liquid.
Type and basic parameters
Filling machine type
- According to liquid filling temperature: room temperature filling, low temperature filling, hot tube filling
- According to liquid filling pressure: normal pressure filling, vacuum filling, pressurized filling.
- According to filling methods: equal pressure filling, differential pressure filling
- According to the gas content of the liquid: filling with gas, filling without gas
- Production water should comply with the provisions of GB5749, the pressure of water source should not be less than 0.3Mpa, the quality of compressed air should comply with the provisions of GB/T 13277.1, the pressure of gas source should not be less than 0.6Mpa; gas filling carbon dioxide gas source pressure is 0.6 MPa ~ 0.8 MPa; power supply for 380 V/220 V, 50 Hz/60Hz, power supply The deviation of voltage and rated voltage shall be kept in the range of 10%~17%.
- The bottle and cap used in the product shall conform to the provisions of relevant national or industrial standards. Polyester (PET) beverage bottles shall conform to the provisions of QB/T 1868, QB 2357 and QB/T 2665, and recycled plastic bottles shall not be used. The plastic anti-theft bottle caps shall conform to the provisions of GB/T 17876.
- Products should be in line with the production process health requirements of independent filling room, the working environment temperature of 5 degrees Celsius ~ 35 degrees Celsius, filling room should be in line with the relevant provisions of GB 14881.
General technical requirement
- The filling machine shall be manufactured according to the drawings and technical documents approved by the prescribed procedure.
- The operation of the filling machine should be smooth, the movement of the moving parts should be responsive, coordinated and accurate, without jamming and abnormal sound.
- The air path, liquid path, lubrication system and conveying pipeline of the filling machine should be smooth, flexible control, no leakage, and should comply with the relevant national and industrial standards.
- The filling system should ensure that no bottle is filled, and the cap feeding system should ensure that no bottle is fed into the cap, one bottle and one cap, and the cap feeding should be straight.
- The production capacity of the filling machine should reach the rated production capacity, and the production efficiency of the filling machine should reach 95% of the rated production capacity.
- Taking 500ml bottle as the standard bottle, after the bottle is rinsed, the water content of the residual water in the bottle should not be more than 2ml, and the PH value of the residual water in the bottle should be consistent with the PH value of the rinsing water. The pressure of the rinse water is sufficient to rinse the inner surface of the bottle. When the pressure of the rinse water is lower than the rated value, the alarm will be raised and the machine will be stopped.
- Filling accuracy：The filling accuracy of the finished products using the flow, weighing and volume control principle shall conform to the provisions of Table 1, and the average actual content shall conform to the provisions of JJF1070.
For room temperature filling and hot filling products using liquid level control principle, the difference of liquid level in the bottle shall not be greater than +/-3mm, and the difference of liquid level for gas filling shall not be greater than +/-4mm.
- Filling liquid loss rate should not be greater than 0.5%.
- Bottle loss rate should not be greater than 0.1%
- Lid loss rate should be not more than 0.2%.
- The cosmetic quality of the finished product shall conform to the following provisions：The surface of the finished product should be smooth, no deformation, depression and no standard damage phenomenon.
The finished seal should be no high cover, crooked cover, broken cover, lack of cover, security ring deformation and fracture and other phenomena, cover the surface should be no obvious scratches.
- The cap opening torque shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 17876, and the difference value of cap opening torque formed by each screw cap and its own fluctuation value shall not be greater than 0.4 Nm.
- The finished product has passed the airtightness test, and there should be no leakage at the sealing place.
- The volume of carbon dioxide gas in the finished product should meet the requirements of Table 1 in GB/T 10792-2008 (no such requirement for non-gas filling).
- The qualified rate of the finished product should be not less than 99.7%.
- The noise pressure level of the filling machine should be not more than 85 dB(A).
Electrical safety requirements
- The circuit control system of the machine should meet the requirements of GB 5226.1-2008, safe and reliable. The operation should be accurate, and the electrical joints should be firmly connected and numbered; the operation buttons should be flexible and the indicator lights should be normal. The protection grade of the electrical cabinet should reach IP54; the protection grade of the electrical components in the contact area and splash area of filling liquid should reach IP65.
- The insulation resistance measured when 500 Vd.c. is applied between the power circuit wire and protection connection circuit should not be less than 1 MΩ.
- All exposed conductive parts of the machine should be connected to the protection circuit according to the requirements of GB 5226.1-2008 8.2.1. Ground terminal or ground contact and grounded metal parts of the connection between, should have a low resistance value, the resistance value should not exceed 0.1 Ω, through the ground resistance test to determine whether it is qualified.
- The electrical equipment should be subjected to a voltage withstand test for at least 1 s between the power circuit conductor and the protection circuit.
Safety and health requirements
The safety guarding of the filling machine shall be in accordance with the following provisions:
- The safety protection of the filling machine shall comply with the provisions of JB 7233, there should be safety protection devices, and warning signs should be affixed.
- The filling machine should be equipped with interlock protection. When the bottle body is stuck, lack of bottle and cover, lack of material or abnormal condition, it should alarm and stop the work of the machine.
- There should be clear and eye-catching safety warning signs on the filling machine such as operation, lubrication, anti-scalding, etc. The safety signs should comply with GB2894 and GB2894. The safety signs should comply with the provisions of GB2894 and GB/T 16273.1.
- Filling machine should have anti-loosening device for the parts which are easy to fall off, exposed rotating gear, belt wheel, sprocket and so on should have protection device, and the reciprocating movement of the machine should have protection device of limit position.
- The parts, bolts, nuts and other fasteners on the filling machine should be reliably fixed to prevent them from loosening, and they should not fall off due to vibration.
- The filling machine should have over-cutting protection device. When the filling machine is overloaded, it should alarm and stop the machine work.
- The safety performance of pneumatic system and hydraulic system should comply with the provisions of GB/T 7932 and GB/T 3766.
The compressed air system should have a safety device.
The material, components and safety and sanitation of the filling machine should comply with the following regulations:
- The materials that come into contact with the filling liquid should meet the requirements of GB 16798. The mechanical design health and safety of the filling machine should comply with the requirements of GB 19891.
- The raw materials used in the filling machine. The purchased supporting parts should have the quality certificate of the manufacturer.
- The rubber parts in the filling machine that contact with the oxidizing. The rubber parts in contact with oxidizing and corrosive media in the filling machine. Seal materials should be selected to be oxidation-resistant and corrosive. For example, fluorine rubber, silicone rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber and so on.
- The lubricant used in the lubricating part of the filling machine that may cause contamination of the filling liquid should be of food grade, and should not flow into the filling liquid; coolant, detergent. Cooling agent, detergent, disinfectant, etc. Cooling agent, detergent, disinfectant, compressed air, etc. should not interact with the filling liquid or filling container to cause a series of pollution. Filling machine should be resistant to chemical and mechanical effects, easy to clean and disinfect and should meet the requirements of food hygiene.
- The surface and coating of the materials used in the part of the filling machine that needs to be cleaned should be durable, washable, disinfectable when necessary, no cracks, anti-cracking, anti-cracking, anti-spalling, anti-erosion, anti-corrosion, anti-corrosion and anti-wear, and can prevent the intrusion of dirt in the intended use.
- The surface of the contact area of the filling liquid should be smooth, flat, easy to clean or disinfect. It should be smooth, easy to clean or disinfect. The surface of the contact area of the filling liquid should be smooth, smooth, easy to clean or disinfect. It should be corrosion-resistant, non-absorbent, and resistant to processing temperature and heat treatment temperature when necessary; it should not contain harmful substances or substances that exceed the quantity specified in the food hygiene standard and are harmful to human health; it should not produce harmful substances or substances that exceed the quantity specified in the food hygiene standard and are harmful to human health due to the interaction with the filling liquid, and substances that affect the odor, color and quality of the filling liquid.
- The parts on the surface of the contact area of the filling liquid should have good processability (bendability, cutability, weldability, weldability and so on). Cutting, weldability, surface hardness. It can be abraded and polished, etc.), good thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, resistance to permeation of the liquid. External parts into the filling area should be set at the reliable sealing, so as to avoid filling liquid contamination.
- The surface of the contact area of non-filled liquids should be made of corrosion-resistant materials, or be treated to resist corrosion from both the filling liquid and cleaning/disinfection.
- The surface of the non-filling liquid contact area should have good resistance to absorption and penetration, durability and washability, and no pollution or any other adverse effects on the filling liquid.
- The contact surface of the splash zone of the filling liquid should be made of corrosion-resistant materials. It is also allowed to use surface coating of corrosion-resistant materials. The contact surface of the splash zone of the filling liquid should have good resistance to absorption and penetration, and should be durable and washable.
The safety and hygienic properties of the structure of the filling machine shall be in accordance with the following provisions:
- Bearings in contact with the surface of the contact area of the filling liquid should be of non-lubricant type. If lubricant type bearings are used, there must be a reliable sealing device around the bearings to prevent the filling liquid from being contaminated.
- The inner wall, filling liquid delivery pipes and connecting parts that come into contact with the filling liquid should be smooth and clean. They should be smooth and neat. There should be no depressions and dead corners where the filling liquid stays. The welding seam should be polished without any material gap.
- The containers, pipes, valves, etc. which are in contact with the filling liquid or need to be cleaned by CIP, should be filled with argon protection welding, single-sided welding, double-sided forming, and can be acid-cleaned or polished to ensure the inner surface is smooth and without material gaps. The contact area of filling liquid should not be polluted. Container. The surface roughness of valves should not be greater than 0.8 um, and the roughness of non-filling liquid contact surface parts in the filling area should not be greater than 3.2 um. The pipes, valves and instruments in contact with the filling liquid should follow the procedure of selection, design and installation. There should be no stagnant area of filling liquid in the normal production process, and no dead angle in the CIP cleaning process.
- The disassembly and installation of the parts that need to be cleaned but cannot be cleaned automatically in the filling machine must be simple and convenient. The parts that cannot be disassembled should be cleaned automatically and the cleaning effect is good.
The safety requirements of the control system of the filling machine shall comply with the following provisions
- Filling machine manufacturing should give full consideration to the safety control of the production line to ensure that the production is carried out safely; the safety control should meet the requirements of the relevant safety standard level, i.e. SIL level, to ensure its safety.
- In order to ensure the safety of people and production, the safety control unit must be equipped with a safety circuit. As a rule, the safety control circuits are operated with a safety voltage of 24 V. The safety control units are equipped with fail-safe controllers as required.
- Fail-safe controllers are available on request.
- The emergency stop should be located at each operator control station (unless the risk assessment indicates otherwise) and at other locations identified by the risk assessment, clearly marked and easily accessible in its configuration. It should be configured so as to be easily accessible and so that there is no hazard to the operator and others required to operate it. Measures to prevent misuse should not weaken its accessibility.
- All emergency stop equipment must have dual independent circuitry. The control circuit shall be designed so that it will not affect the emergency stop equipment in the event of failure of individual components. Single circuit safety systems are used elsewhere.
- Once a valid emergency stop or emergency disconnect has aborted a subsequent command, the command shall remain valid until reset. Reset shall only be performed manually in the position that triggered the emergency operation command. The commanded reset shall not restart the machine, but merely allow it to be restarted.
- The emergency stop function shall negate all other functions and operations in all modes of operation; power to the mechanical actuators capable of causing a hazardous condition shall be immediately removed or a controlled means of stopping the hazardous movement as soon as possible and without causing other hazards.
- In the case of unmanned actuators. The safety guardrail should be installed at all positions, the entrance should be secured (e.g. grating, safety door, etc.), and the signal of safety protection equipment should be interlocked with other equipment.
- All control buttons and control valves and other components should be installed in such a way as to avoid the malfunctioning of the equipment caused by the operator’s accidental touching.
- When the automatic cycle start of the filling machine is in progress, there should be flashing light and sound warning letters and signals.
- The safety circuit of the barrier/grid/door is effective in both manual and automatic conditions. In the open position, the normal movement of the barrier/grid/door is prevented by an isolated power source and is monitored by the safety system.
Appearance quality requirements
- The coating or spraying layer of the non-processed surface of the filling machine should be flat and smooth. Uniform color, no obvious dirt, flow marks, blistering and other defects.
- The surface treated parts of the filling machine should have uniform color, no bubbling, flow marks, blistering and other defects. Layer. Corrosion and other defects.
- Test ambient temperature 5°C ~35°C
- The plastic threaded bottle cap and the standard bottle with filling capacity of 500 mL should conform to the relevant national and industrial standards, and can be filled with water or corresponding medium as the standard filling liquid.
After the assembly of each filling machine is completed, it should do idle running test, and the continuous running time should not be less than 4 h. Check the performance of the machine, and should comply with the provisions of 5.1.2.
Pneumatic and hydraulic circuits. Pipeline and lubrication system sealing inspection.
- Wipe gently around the seals of the lubricating system with a cotton wool, observing the grease on the cotton wool, according to 5.1.3.
- Apply soapy water or wash water to the seals of the pneumatic components and observe for air leaks, as specified in 5.1.3.
- After the hydraulic system is assembled, it should be tested with 1.25 times of rated pressure for 30 min, no leakage, and the pressure drop should not be more than 5%, it should conform to 5.1.3.
- Use the cotton wool to wipe gently around the seal, and observe whether there is any material on the cotton wool, it should conform to the requirement of 5.1.3.
Productivity ability tests
After the normal operation of the filling machine, continuous filling for 10 min, the total number of statistical filling finished products, according to the formula (1) to calculate the production capacity, should be consistent with the provisions of 5.2.1.
In the formula:
V: production capacity, unit is bottles per hour (bottles/hb);
M1: the total number of finished products completed filling, in bottles.
Productivity efficiency test
The test is carried out at the user’s site, after the normal operation of the filling machine, fill 8 h continuously, the statistics of the total number of finished products filled, according to the formula (2) to calculate the production efficiency, should comply with the provisions of 5. 2.1.
In the formula:
¶: production efficiency, %
F: Rated production capacity in bottles per hour (bottles/h);
T: Effective time, in hours (h);
M2: the total number of finished products, in bottles.
Effective time T is: the test time of 8 h minus any institutions in the test time not due to equipment failure itself caused by the sum of all downtime (∑ t) that is:
The ∑ t: any institution not due to equipment failure itself caused by the sum of all downtime, in hours (h).
Residual water test
Prepare to flush the first 2 times the number of empty bottles, or randomly prepare a group of 10 empty bottles, each time no less than 5 groups, weighing bottle by bottle with an electronic balance. When the filling machine is in stable operation, send the bottles to the flushing device. After the bottles are flushed, take them out and dry the external surface, then weigh them one by one, and calculate the mass difference value of each bottle before and after flushing.
When the filling machine is stable, put 20 bottles soaked with 3% sodium hydroxide solution into the flushing device. After the bottles are rinsed, at the outlet of the flushing device, the residual water on the surface of the bottles will be tested one by one with pH test paper, the pH of which should be 1 to 1 (pH6.5 and pH7.0).
Filling accuracy test using flow, weighing and volume control principle
The accuracy of the calibration scale is selected according to the maximum permissible error less than or equal to one-third of the permissible deviation of the net content of the product to be tested.
1~10 N I I I 0 0
1~50 10 T.028 S 0 0
51~99 13 0. 848 s 1 0
100-500 50 0. 379 S 3 0
501~3200 80 0.295 S 5 0
Greater than 3200 125 0.234 S 7 0
Calculation of average actual content according to formula (4)
In the formula:
q: Average actual content of the sampled finished product;
qi: the measured net content of the filled liquid.
n: Number of bottles sampled.
The average actual content shall comply with the requirements of formula (5).
Qn: Labeled net content
λ:correction factor λ =
S: Standard deviation of actual content S=
Note: The sample average actual content should be greater than or equal to the marked net content minus the sample average actual content correction λS.
Filling accuracy test using liquid level control principle
After normal operation of the filling machine, run it continuously at the rated speed for 8 hours and take 1000 samples at will. Measure the liquid level of the standard volumetric sample bottle as the standard liquid level with the minimum index value of 1mm depth ruler. Measure the level height of the sample vial and compare it with the standard level height of the standard volumetric sample vial, which should comply with the provisions of 5.2.3b).
Note: The standard volume sample bottle is the finished product with the standard volume of the same batch of filled liquid in the same batch of bottles.
Liquid loss rate test for acceptance
The test is carried out at the user’s site, the total amount of filling liquid and the total volume of liquid in the filling bottle in the normal continuous operation of the filling machine for 8 hours, and the liquid loss rate is calculated according to formula (6), which shall comply with the provisions of 5.2.4.
In the formula.
D: Liquid loss rate, %
G1: Total volume of liquid in 8-hour filled bottle, L
G: Total volume of filled liquid, L
Bottle Loss Rate Test for User Acceptance
The test is carried out at the user’s site, after the normal operation of the filling machine (can be carried out at the same time with 6. 3. 2 test), statistics of the total number of bottles and the number of damaged bottles (damaged due to the poor quality of the bottles themselves are not counted) entered into the filling machine within 8 h. According to formula (7), calculate the bottle damage rate, should comply with the provisions of 5. 2. 5.
In the formula.
P: Bottle loss rate, %
P1: Number of bottles lost, in bottles
P: Total number of bottles, unit is bottles.
Cap Loss Rate Test for User Acceptance
After the normal operation of the filling machine, count the total number of caps and the number of damaged caps inputted into the filling machine within 8 hours (the damaged caps due to poor quality are not counted), and calculate the cap loss rate according to formula (8), which should meet the requirements of 5. 2.6.
R: Cap loss rate, %.
f1: Number of cap loss, in pcs;
f2: the total number of caps, in units of pcs.
Cap opening torque test
During the normal operation of the filling machine, continuously draw a sample bottle with the number of capping heads doubled each time, the time interval is 5 min, and the sample is drawn 10 times.
When the filling machine is in normal operation, draw a sample of bottle twice the number of capping heads consecutively at 5 min intervals, and draw 10 times. According to the requirements of GB/T 17876, the sealability test should be in accordance with the provisions of 5.2.9.
Carbon dioxide gas volume check
Measurement of carbon dioxide capacity according to 6.2.1 of GB/T 10792-2008 shall comply with the provisions of 5.2.10.
Visual quality inspection of finished products
The test was carried out at the user’s site, and the machine was operated continuously at rated speed for 8 h. 1,000 sample bottles were taken at random, which should meet the requirements of 5.2.7, and the number of rejects a1 was counted.
Filling level difference test
Take a sample bottle with acceptable appearance quality, measure the filling level height according to the test method given in 6. 3. 5. 2, and it should comply with the provisions of 5. 2. 3b), and count the number of failed products a2 with filling level difference.
Calculate the pass rate of the finished product according to formula (9).
K: Finished product pass rate,%%;
a1: the number of failed products in appearance quality, the unit is bottle;
a2: Filling level difference of the number of non-conforming products, unit for the bottle.
The calculation results should be consistent with the provisions of 5.2.11.
In the continuous working process, the noise of the filling machine is measured according to the method specified in JB/T 7232, and the noise value should be in accordance with 5.2.12.
Electrical safety tests
- Insulation resistance table according to GB 5226.1 a 2008 in 18.3 of the provisions of the measurement of its insulation resistance, should be consistent with the provisions of 5.3.2.
- When the power supply of the electrical device is disconnected, obtain a constant current from a power supply with no-load voltage not exceeding 12 V (AC or DC), and the current is equal to 1.5 times the rated current or 25 A (whichever is greater), let the current pass between the ground terminal and each accessible metal part by turns.
- Measure the voltage drop between the ground terminal and each accessible metal part, and calculate the resistance value from the current and voltage drop, which shall be in accordance with 5.3.3.
- With pressure tester according to GB 5226.1-2008 18.4, it should conform to 5.3.4.
Inspection of safety and health requirements
- Check safety guards, which shall be in accordance with 5.4.1.
- Check the machine material report and quality certificate, which shall be in accordance with 5.4.2 and 5.4.3.
Appearance quality inspection
Check the quality of the appearance of the machine, which should be in accordance with 5.5
The conversion of old products to new products or the trial production of new products;
After formal production, such as material . After formal production, if the material . The process has a big difference, may affect the performance of the product;
Normal production, regular or after accumulating a certain amount of production, should be tested once a year;
To resume production after a long period of production stoppage.
Ex-factory test results with the last type test there are large differences;
The national quality supervisory body has requested a type test.
- Model Number;
- Product Standard;
- Main technical parameters of the product;
- Date of manufacture and factory number;
- Manufacturer’s name and location (export products marked with * PRC”).
- The transportation and packaging of the filling machine should comply with the provisions of GB/T 13384.
- Before the packaging of the filling machine, the exposed processing surface should be treated with rust prevention.
- The packaging box of the filling machine should be strong and reliable, and can meet the requirements of transportation and handling.
- The packing box should have reliable moisture-proof measures.
- The special tools and wearing parts of the filling machine should be packed and fixed in the packing box.
- The outer surface of the packaging box should be clearly marked out the delivery and transport operations logo, and should be consistent with the provisions of GB/T 191.
Transport and storage
- The filling machine should be put down carefully and gently during transportation, and it is not allowed to be inverted or collided.
- The filling machine should be stored in a dry and ventilated place.