How to design the auxiliary department of a carbonated beverage plant
From the perspective of plant composition, all departments or facilities other than the production floor (where materials are processed) are called auxiliary departments. In terms of the amount of space they occupy, they often make up the majority of the plant. For a food factory, production cannot be carried out with a production plant alone; there must also be sufficient auxiliary facilities. These auxiliary facilities can be divided into three main categories.
1. production auxiliary facilities, mainly including.
- The receiving and temporary storage of raw materials;
- Inspection of raw materials, semi-finished and finished products;
- The study of products, process conditions and the trial production of new products;
- Maintenance of mechanical equipment and electrical instruments;
- Transportation inside and outside the workshop and inside and outside the plant;
- Storage of raw and auxiliary materials and packaging materials;
- The packaging and storage of finished products, etc.
2. Power facilities, mainly including.
Water supply and drainage,
- the boiler room or heating station,
- the electricity supply and automatic instrumentation control,
- the heating.
- air conditioning and ventilation,
- the refrigeration station,
- the wastewater treatment station, etc.
3. Living auxiliary facilities, mainly including
- office building,
- locker room
- and single dormitory, etc.
The above three parts are the fundamental structures to be considered in the plant design. Besides, there are dormitories for employees’ families, children’s schools, technical schools, hospitals for employees, etc. Which are generally used as social and cultural welfare measures and are not included in the design of beverage factories. However, they can be considered in the design of a beverage plant.
The above three categories of auxiliary department design, by their engineering nature and the size of the workload, determine the professional division of labour.
Usually, the first type of auxiliary facilities is mainly considered by the process designers. The second type of auxiliary facilities is respectively undertaken by the corresponding professional design. The third type of auxiliary facilities is primarily considered by civil engineering designers.
The following is the design of the auxiliary department of the carbonated beverage workshop.
Raw material warehouse
There are not many raw and auxiliary materials used in the production of carbonated beverages. From the perspective of the production cycle, it is enough to have 5 days of reserve. Among the raw and auxiliary materials, white granulated sugar takes up the most area. 2111kg of white granulated sugar is used every day in the peak season, which means 10.6 tons are needed in 5 days.
The size of a bag of white granulated sugar is about 800×400×200 (mm), and the materials are generally stacked at 2.5 m. Therefore, all the raw and auxiliary materials occupy an area of about 10 m2. Because of its small area, this warehouse can be located at the beginning of the workshop, convenient for production.
Packaging material warehouse
The storage period of packaging materials can be one week. 60,000 plastic bottles of 0.5L and 2,500 cartons are needed daily in the peak season. The stacking height is 2.5m, and the plastic bottles can be stored in the carton with the size of 400×300×200(mm). Therefore, the area of this warehouse is about 180m2.
Finished product warehouse
The storage time of the finished beverage warehouse is generally 7-10 days, and the factory stipulates 8 days. The size of a box of finished products is about 400×300×200 (mm). The stacking height is 2.5m. Therefore, the area of this warehouse is approximately 200m2.
Research and Development Center
The purpose of setting up R&D centres in food factories is to maintain the vitality of factory production for a long time to obtain better financial results.
Tasks of the R&D centre
1. Research of raw material varieties for processing
2. Develop the production process in line with the actual factory
3. Develop new products
Equipment of R&D centre
The R&D centre generally consists of a research studio, analysis room, holding room, bacteria testing room, sample room, data room, etc. In terms of equipment, it can be equipped with some small equipment, such as a small sandwich pot, a small pressure sterilizer, and refrigerators and air compressors. This design R&D centre is adjacent to the production workshop. It should be closely linked to the production and make the water, electricity and steam supply convenient.
Quality Control Center
The quality control centre is also known as the inspection department. Its function is to carry out sanitary supervision and quality inspection of products and related raw materials. To ensure that these raw materials and final products comply with national food hygiene laws, regulations and quality standards or quality requirements issued by relevant departments.
Tasks of the Quality Control Center
The tasks of the quality control centre can be divided according to the object and project of inspection.
1. inspection objects are generally: raw material inspection, semi-finished product inspection, finished product inspection, tinned sheet and paint inspection, other packaging materials inspection, various additives inspection, water quality inspection and environmental monitoring, etc.
2. the test items are generally: sensory testing, physical testing, chemical testing and microbiological testing.
Composition of the quality control centre
The composition of the quality control centre is generally divided according to the test items. It is divided into
- sensory testing room,
- physical testing room,
- chemical testing room,
- empty tank testing room,
- precision instrument room,
- bacteria testing room (including the preparation room, disinfection and cleaning room, sterile room, bacteria culture room, mirror room, etc.)
- And storage room.
Equipment of quality control centre
- double-sided laboratory table,
- single-sided laboratory table,
- support table, fume hood, etc.
- ordinary balance,
- analytical balance,
- moisture rapid tester,
- drying box,
- constant temperature box,
- electric furnace,
- biological microscope, etc.
- tissue mashers,
- gas chromatographs,
- ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometers,
- air conditioners and ultraviolet lamps, etc.
Quality control centre requirements for the building
The location of the quality control centre should be far away from the production workshop, boiler room, and major traffic roads. It should be downwind from the workshop or on the upper floors of the building. The quality control centre can be in the same building as the R&D centre, with the quality control centre on the upper floor and the R&D centre on the lower floor.
The main task of the machine shop in food factories is to manufacture non-standard specialized equipment and repair and maintain special equipment. Large food factory machine shop has a factory department machine repair and workshop maintenance. Small and medium-sized food factories generally only have a factory-level warranty. The machine shop is usually composed of several parts, such as machining, cold work and mold forging. Besides, there are also attached to the woodworking room and hardware warehouse.
Plant-wide living facilities
The plant-wide living facilities referred to here include offices, locker rooms, canteens, bathrooms, toilets, etc.
Composition of the office building
The office building should be arranged near the entrance of the pedestrian flow, and its area is related to the number of management personnel and the setting of institutions.
The workshop office should be located in the workshop and meet light, ventilation, and sound insulation requirements.
Office building floor space estimation
The formula is as follows.
F = (GK A/K ) + B (4-1)
Where F – office building construction area, ㎡.
G – the total number of employees in the plant, people.
The number of people in the whole factory office ratio generally took 8% to 12%.
K – building coefficient, 65% to 69%.
A – area used by each office worker, 5-7m2/person.
B – the area of auxiliary rooms, decided according to the need.
The office building includes administrative staff offices and conference rooms.
Therefore, the floor area of the office building is.
The location of the canteen in the plant should be close to the entrance and exit of workers or the concentration of human flow. Its service distance should be no more than 600m.
Determination of the number of seats in the canteen
The formula is as follows.
Where N – the number of seats.
M – the maximum class size of the plant.
C – the number of meal batches.
K – seat rotation coefficient, 1.2 for the first and second shift system.
The maximum number of people in the plant is 36.
The number of meal batches is 1 batch.
Therefore, the number of seats
Canteen floor space calculation
The formula is as follows.
Where F – canteen floor space, ㎡.
N – the number of seats.
D1 – the area used for each seat, 0.85 to 1.0 ㎡
D2 – kitchen and other areas per seat, 0.55 to 0.7 ㎡.
K – building coefficient, 82% to 89%.
Canteen seating 5%.
Therefore, the floor area of the canteen is
F=26×(0.90+0.60)/85% = 48
The area used in each dining hall is taken as 0.90 ㎡.
0.60 ㎡ for each kitchen and other areas.
To meet the hygiene requirements, the dressing rooms of food factories should be scattered and attached to each production workshop or department near the entrance and exit of personnel. Workers should enter the changing room to change clothes before entering the workshop, wash their hands in the hand-washing pool and dry and disinfect with alcohol disinfector before entering the workshop.
The locker room should be equipped with three layers of lockers for individual use, with the size of 500×400×1800mm, to store work clothes and casual clothes, respectively. The locker room area should be 0.5~0.6㎡ per person according to the total number of fixed workers.
Because only production workers and technicians enter the production workshop every shift, the total number is 16. To avoid unexpected situations, the dressing room is set for 20 people.
The area used by each person is taken as 0.5 ㎡.
Therefore, the area of the dressing room is 20×0.5=10 ㎡.
Since production workers and personnel of other departments need to take a bath, bathrooms need to be set up in the factory. The number of bathroom showers is 6% to 9% of the maximum number of people using each bathroom. The construction area of the bathroom is estimated at 5 to 6 ㎡ for each shower.
The total number of people is 50, then the number of bathroom showers is 50×8%=4
The bathroom construction area is 4×5=20 ㎡
The larger workshops in the food factory, especially the building of the production workshop, should consider setting up toilets near the workshop to facilitate the hygiene of production workers. Toilets in the workshop are generally flush type, and at the same time should be set up to wash the sewage pool. The number of squatting toilet pool should be calculated according to the maximum number of classes, male every 40-50 people set up a, female every 30-35 people set up a. Toilet construction area is estimated at 2.5 ~ 3 ㎡ / squat.
The ratio of male and female workers in the production plant of food factory is generally male: female = 3:7
Because the plant is not a large production plant, and the maximum number of classes only a total of 36 people, it is only necessary to set up a male toilet and a female toilet can be.
Therefore, the toilet area is 4×3=12 ㎡
Men’s toilet 6 ㎡, women’s toilet 6 ㎡.
The staff dormitory is located on the upper floor of the canteen, with 3 female dormitories and 3 male dormitories. Each room is for 6 people, the beds are bunk beds, 3 beds in one room, the area of each room is 6×3=18 ㎡
The total area of four dormitories is 18×4=72㎡
Electricity distribution room
Electricity service provides stable current for the whole plant and statistics of electricity consumption of each section, about 35 ㎡.
Sewage treatment station
Sewage is treated not only for production water but also for domestic water. Activated sludge tank, filtering tank, etc. are needed, and the design covers an area of 80 ㎡.
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