180 Professional Terminology Used in Water Treatment

180 Professional Terminology Used in Water Treatment

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Water treatment commonly used 180 professional terminology analysis,
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180 Professional Terminology Used in Water Treatment

1. Surface-water: refers to the water that exists on the surface of the earth’s crust and is exposed to the atmosphere. It is the general term for the four water bodies of rivers, glaciers, lakes, and swamps, also known as “land-water”.

2. Groundwater: It is stored in the aeration zone (aeration zone refers to the geological medium located below the earth’s surface and above the phreatic surface) and below the stratum voids, including rock pores, fissures and caves. Groundwater exists in the crustal rock cracks Or in the pores of the soil.

3. Raw water: refers to water collected in nature, including but not limited to Groundwater, reservoir water and other water sources that can be seen in nature, without any artificial purification treatment.

4. PH: indicates the value of the pH of the solution, pH=-lg[H+] is the negative value of the common logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration contained.

5. Total alkalinity: the total amount of substances in the water that can neutralize strong acids. Such substances include strong bases, weak bases, strong bases and weak acid salts.

6. Phenolphthalein alkalinity: The alkalinity is measured using phenolphthalein as an indicator (the titration endpoint pH=8.2~8.4).

7. Methyl orange alkalinity: The alkalinity is measured with methyl orange as an indicator (titration endpoint pH=3.1~4.4).

8. Total acidity: acidity refers to the total amount of substances in the water that can neutralize strong alkalis, including inorganic acids, organic acids, and salts of strong acids and weak bases.

9. Total hardness: In general natural water, it is mainly Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the content of other ions is very small. Usually, the total content of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the water is called the total hardness of the water.

10. Temporary hardness: The hardness formed by the water containing Ca(HCO3)2 and Mg(HCO3)2 can be removed after boiling. This hardness is called carbonate hardness, also known as temporary hardness.

11.Permanent hardness: The hardness formed by the salt substances such as CaSO4 (CaCl2) and MgSO4 (MgCl2) in the water cannot be removed after boiling. This hardness is called non-carbonate hardness, also known as permanent hardness.

12. Dissolved matter: exists in water (or other solvents) solution in the form of simple molecules or ions. The particle size is usually only a few tenths to a few nanometers, which is invisible to the naked eye. There is no Tyndall phenomenon that cannot be seen with an optical microscope.

13. Colloid: A cluster of several molecules or ions combined together. The size is usually tens of nanometers to tens of microns, invisible to the naked eye, but the Tyndall phenomenon occurs. Small colloidal particles cannot be seen with an optical microscope, but large ones can see.

14. Suspended matter: It is a small particle that is visible to the naked eye formed by many molecules or ions. The size is usually more than tens of microns. With an optical microscope, it can be clearly seen that the suspended matter particles can settle for a long time.

15. Total salt content: The total amount of ions in the water is called the total salt content. It is obtained by adding up the amounts of all cations and anions obtained from the full analysis of water quality. The unit is expressed in mg/L (PPM was also used in the past).

16. Turbidity: also known as turbidity. From a technical point of view, turbidity is a water quality substitute parameter used to reflect the content of suspended solids in water. The main suspended matter in the water is generally soil. 1L distilled water contains 1mg silica as the unit of standard turbidity, expressed as 1PPm.

17. Total dissolved solids: TDS, also known as total dissolved solids, the unit of measurement is milligrams per litre (mg/L), which indicates how many milligrams of dissolved solids are dissolved in 1 liter of water.

18. Resistance: According to Ohm’s law, when the water temperature is constant, the resistance value R of water is inversely proportional to the vertical cross-sectional area F of the electrode and proportional to L between the electrodes.

19. Conductivity: The degree of water conductivity is called conductivity S (or conductivity).

20. Conductivity: The conductivity of water is the reciprocal of water resistance, and it is usually used to express the purity of water.

21. Resistivity: The electrical resistivity of water refers to the electrical resistance between the opposite sides of a cube of water with a side length of 1cm at a certain temperature. Its unit is ohm*cm (Ω*CM), which is generally a parameter representing the quality of high-purity water.

22. Softened water: refers to water that removes or reduces the hardness of water (mainly calcium and magnesium ions in the water) to a certain extent. In the water softening process, only the hardness decreases, while the total salt content does not change.

23. Desalted water: refers to the water that has been removed or reduced to a certain extent by the salts (mainly strong electrolytes soluble in water) in the water. The electrical conductivity is generally 1.0-10.0μs/cm, the resistivity (25℃) is 0.1–1000000Ω.cm, and the salt content is 1.5mg/L.

24. Pure water: refers to the strong and weak electrolytes in the water (such as SiO2.C02, etc.). Remove or reduce the water to a certain level. The electrical conductivity is generally 1.0-0.1μs/cm, and the resistivity is 1.0–1000000Ω.cm. The salt content is less than 1mg/l.

25. Ultra-pure water: refers to the water in which the conductive medium in the water is almost completely removed, and the non-dissociated gases, colloids and organic substances (including bacteria, etc.) are also removed to a very low level. Its electrical conductivity is generally 0.1-0.055μs/cm, resistivity (25°C)>10×1000000Ω.cm, and salt content<0.1mg/l. Ideal pure water (theoretically) has a conductivity of 0.05μs/cm and a resistivity (25°C) of 18.3×1000000μs/cm.

26. Deoxygenated water: also called deoxygenated water, which removes dissolved oxygen in the water and is generally used for boiler water.

27. Ion exchange: a method of separation using the difference in ion exchange capacity between the exchangeable groups in the ion exchanger and the various ions in the solution.

28. Cationic resin: with acidic groups. In an aqueous solution, acidic groups can be ionized to generate H+, ion-exchanged with cations in water.

29. Anion resin: contains basic groups that ionize in an aqueous solution and exchange with anions.


30. Inert resin: no active groups, no ion exchange effect, the relative density is generally controlled between the anion and cation resins to separate the anion and cation resins to avoid cross-contamination of the anion and cation resins during regeneration, to regenerate More complete.

31. Microfiltration: MF is also called microporous filtration, which belongs to precision filtration. Microfiltration can filter out micron or nanometer particles and bacteria in the solution.

32. Ultrafiltration: UF, one of the membrane separation technologies with pressure as the driving force. To separate macromolecules from small molecules, the pore size of the membrane is between 20-1000A°.

33. Nanofiltration: NF is a pressure-driven membrane separation process between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. The pore size of nanofiltration membranes is about a few nanometers.

34. Osmosis: Osmosis is a phenomenon in which water molecules diffuse through a semi-permeable membrane. It penetrates from the area of ​​high water molecules (i.e. low-concentration solution) into the area of ​​low water molecules (i.e. high-concentration solution).

35. Osmotic pressure: For semipermeable membranes with different concentrations of aqueous solutions on both sides, to prevent water from permeating from the low-concentration side to the high-concentration side, the minimum additional pressure applied on the high-concentration side is called osmotic pressure.

36. Reverse osmosis: RO reverse osmosis is to press water from a concentrated solution to a low-concentration solution by artificial pressure. The pore size of the RO reverse osmosis membrane is as small as nanometers. Under certain pressure, water molecules can pass through the RO membrane. Inorganic salts, heavy metal ions, organic matter, colloids, bacteria, viruses and other impurities in the water cannot pass through the RO membrane.

36. Dialysis: also known as dialysis. A membrane separation operation that uses concentration differences as the driving force. It uses the membrane’s selective permeability to solutes to realize the separation of solutes of different properties.

37. Electrodialysis: ED, when dialysis is performed under the action of an electric field, the phenomenon in which the charged solute particles (such as ions) in the solution migrate through the membrane is called electrodialysis.

38. EDI: also known as continuous electric desalination technology, is a pure water manufacturing technology that combines ion exchange technology, ion exchange membrane technology and ion electromigration technology.

39. Recovery rate: refers to the percentage of feed water converted into product water or permeated in the membrane system.

40. Desalination rate: the percentage of total soluble impurity concentration removed from the influent water of the system through reverse osmosis membranes, or the percentage of specific components such as divalent ions or organics removed through nanofiltration membranes.

41. Salt penetration rate: the opposite value of the desalination rate, the percentage of soluble impurities in the influent that penetrates the membrane. Permeate; purified water produced by the membrane system.

42. Flux: The flow rate of permeate per unit membrane area, usually expressed in litres per square meter per hour (l/m2h) or gallons per square foot per day (gfd).

43. Product water: The purified water solution is the product water of reverse osmosis or nanofiltration system.

44. Concentrated water: the part of the solution that passes through the membrane, such as the concentrated water of a reverse osmosis or nanofiltration system.

Circulating water treatment

45. Circulating water: The system that uses water to cool the process medium is called the cooling water system.

46. ​​Direct-flow cooling water system: The cooling water only passes through the heat exchange equipment once. The water is discharged after use.

47. Open-type circulating water: Use water cooling to remove the heat emitted by the process medium or heat exchange equipment, and then use the hot water and air to evaporate part of the hot water when the hot water is in direct contact with the air so that most of the hot water is cooled, and then recycle.

48. Closed circulating water system: also known as closed circulating cooling water system. In this system, the cooling water is not discharged immediately after being used but is recycled and reused.

49. Cooling tower: It is a device that uses water as a circulating coolant to absorb heat from a system and discharge it into the atmosphere to lower the water temperature. There are two cooling methods: natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation.

50. Water distributor: The return water is evenly distributed to the filler through the water distributor.

51. Filling: The return water passes through the filling to form a water film, which increases the contact area with air.

52. Water collector: recover liquid water carried in part of the evaporated water vapour.

53. Circulating water volume: refers to the total circulating water volume of the cooling tower on the circulating water system. n50 Water retention: The sum of all water volumes in the circulating water system equals the sum of the pool volume and the water volume in the pipes and water cooling equipment.

54. Supplementary water volume: used to supplement the water needed in the circulating water system due to losses due to evaporation, sewage, and splashing.

55. Bypass filter water volume: The water volume is divided and discharged from the circulating cooling water system after being treated as required and then returned to the system.

56. Evaporated water volume: the volume of water lost by evaporation during the operation of the circulating cooling water system.

57. Sewage discharge volume: The volume of water that needs to be discharged from the circulating cooling water system under the condition of a certain concentration multiple.

58. Water loss due to wind blowing and leakage: the amount of water lost by wind blowing and leakage during the operation of the circulating cooling water system.

59. Supplementary water volume: the circulating cooling water system supplements the lost water volume during operation.

60. Concentration factor: the ratio of the salt concentration of the circulating cooling water to the salt concentration of the makeup water.

61. Heat exchange: The heat exchange between objects is called heat exchange. There are three basic forms of circulating water heat exchange: heat exchange, convection heat exchange, radiation heat exchange, and evaporative heat exchange.

62. Heat conduction: The heat transfer phenomenon between the various parts of the object in direct contact is called heat conduction.

63. Convective heat transfer: In the fluid, the heat transfer between fluids is mainly due to the movement of the fluid, so that part of the heat in the heat flow is transferred to the cold fluid. This heat transfer method is called convective heat transfer.

64. Radiation heat exchange: part of the heat energy of a high-temperature object becomes radiant energy. After being emitted to the receiving object in electromagnetic waves, the radiant energy is converted into heat energy and absorbed. This method of electromagnetic wave transfer of heat is called radiant heat exchange.

65. Evaporation heat exchange: A form of heat exchange that takes away the latent heat of vaporization when water molecules evaporate.

66. Temperature difference between the cooling water inlet and outlet: the temperature difference between the inlet of the cooling tower and the outlet of the pool.

67. Wet bulb temperature: refers to the air temperature when the water vapour in the air reaches saturation under the same enthalpy value.

68. Dry bulb temperature: It is the temperature measured by a thermometer in ordinary air, that is, the temperature we often say in general weather forecasts.

69. Physical cleaning: The debris in the pipeline is cleaned out of the pipeline by the flow rate of water.

70. Chemical cleaning: Through the agent’s action, the surface of the metal heat exchanger is kept clean and activated to prepare for the pre-filming.

71. Pre-filming: Chemical conversion film, which is a type of protective layer on the surface of metal equipment and pipelines, especially pipelines qualified for pickling and passivation, which can be protected by the method of pre-filming.

72. Corrosion inhibitor: the process of inhibiting or delaying the corrosion of metal.

73. Scale inhibitor: a treatment process that uses chemical or physical methods to prevent deposits on the heated surface of heat exchange equipment.

74. Oxidizing biocide: A biocide with solid oxidizing properties, usually a strong oxidant, has a strong killing effect on microorganisms in water.

75. Non-oxidizing bactericide: It does not kill microorganisms by oxidation but acts toxic on special parts of microorganisms. Therefore, it is not affected by reducing substances in water.

76. Available chlorine: refers to the amount of chlorine with equivalent oxidizing power in chlorinated compounds (especially as a disinfectant), which can quantitatively express the disinfection effect.

77. Residual chlorine: Residual chlorine refers to the available chlorine remaining in the water after chlorinated disinfection and contact for a certain period.

78. Synthetic chlorine: refers to the compound of chlorine and ammonia in water. There are three kinds of NH2Cl, NHCl2 and NHCl3. NHCl2 is more stable and has good sterilization effect. It is also called combined residual chlorine.

79. Free residual chlorine: refers to ClO-, HClO, Cl2, etc. in the water. It has a fast sterilizing speed and sterilizing solid power, but it disappears quickly. It is also called free residual chlorine.

80. Orthophosphorus: +5 valence phosphorus in phosphate.

81. Organophosphorus: is a compound containing a carbon-phosphorus bond or a phosphoric acid derivative containing an organic group.

82. Total iron: iron in various existing states, including all iron elements.

83. Total zinc: Zinc in various states contains all zinc elements.

84. Agent residence time: the adequate time of the agent in the circulating cooling water system.

85. Scaling: Calcium and magnesium bicarbonate dissolved in water is decomposed by heat, and white precipitates are precipitated, which gradually accumulate and adhere to the container, which is called scaling.

86. Corrosion: refers to the process of loss and destruction (including metal and non-metal) under the action of surrounding media (water, air, acid, alkali, salt, solvent, etc.).

87. Biological slime: A viscous substance that is mixed with other organic and inorganic impurities and adhered to the surface of the object by the slime produced by microorganisms and their products.

Sewage treatment

88. Domestic sewage: Mainly various kitchen water used in human life. The discharge water produced by washing water and toilet water is mostly non-toxic inorganic salts. Domestic sewage contains many nitrogens, phosphorus, and sulphur, which can cause disease. There are many bacteria.

89. Municipal sewage: the general term for sewage discharged into the urban sewage system. The combined drainage system also includes production wastewater and intercepted rainwater. Municipal sewage mainly includes domestic sewage and industrial sewage collected by the urban drainage pipe network and transported to the sewage treatment plant for treatment.

90. Industrial wastewater: refers to the wastewater, sewage and waste liquid produced in the industrial production process, which contains industrial production materials, intermediate products and products that are lost with water, and pollutants generated in the production process.

91. COD: Chemical oxygen demand, the amount of oxidant consumed by the oxidizable substances in the water body in the chemical oxidation process under specified conditions, expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of water sample, usually recorded as COD.

92.BOD: The amount of dissolved oxygen in the water consumed by the process of microorganisms in the surface water body to decompose organic matter, called the biochemical oxygen demand, usually recorded as BOD, and the common unit is mg/L.

93. BC ratio: indicates the degree of biodegradability of pollutants in the water, 0.1-0.25 difficult to biodegrade, 0.25-0.5 biodegradable,> 0.5 easy to biodegrade.

94.TOC: refers to the total carbon content of soluble and suspended organic matter in the water, reflecting the content of oxidized organic compounds in the water, in ppm or ppb.

95. Ammonia nitrogen: refers to nitrogen in the form of free ammonia (NH3) and ammonium ions (NH4+) in water.

96. Organic nitrogen: the general term for nitrogenous substances combined with carbon, such as protein, amino acid, amide, urea, etc.

97. Kjeldahl nitrogen: TKN refers to the nitrogen content measured by the Kjeldahl method. It includes ammonia nitrogen and organic nitrogen compounds that can be converted into ammonium salts under these conditions.

98. Nitrate Nitrogen: NOxˉ refers to the nitrogen element contained in nitrate. Nitric acid is only compatible with nitrite.

99. Total nitrogen: TN is the total amount of various forms of inorganic and organic nitrogen in the water.

100. Total phosphorus: TP, the result of determination after the water sample is digested to convert various forms of phosphorus into orthophosphate, measured in milligrams of phosphorus per litre of the water sample.

101. Phosphorus: Phosphate in the form of H2PO2ˉ, which cannot be removed by normal chemical phosphorus removal, and needs to be converted into sulphate to remove it.

102. Chroma: refers to the yellowish or even yellowish-brown degree of soluble substances or colloidal substances contained in water.

103. Grille: used to remove floating objects in the water.

104. Primary sedimentation tank: also known as a sedimentation tank, a structure used to remove sinkable and floating objects in sewage treatment.

105. Regulating pool: a structure used to regulate the flow of water in and out. It mainly plays a role in regulating water volume and water quality, as well as regulating the pH value and water temperature of sewage, as well as pre-aeration. It can also be used as accident drainage.

106. Accident pool: The accident water collection pool is a type of structure required in the sewage treatment process. When dealing with high-concentration wastewater discharged from some factories such as chemical and petrochemical plants, an accident pool is generally set up.

107. Grease trap: use the difference in the proportion of suspended solids and water in wastewater to achieve separation.

108. Air flotation: A large number of fine bubbles are generated in the water. The air is attached to the suspended particles in the form of highly dispersed tiny bubbles, resulting in a state where the density is less than that of water. The principle of buoyancy is used to make it float on the water surface to achieve solid-liquid Separate.

109. Biochemical pond: the field pond where the bacterial metabolism is located in the biochemical treatment.

110. Secondary sedimentation tank: the secondary sedimentation tank. The secondary sedimentation tank is an important part of the activated sludge system. Its function is to separate the sludge, clarify, concentrate and return the activated sludge.

111. Advection sedimentation tank: the tank body is rectangular in the plane, and the inlet and outlet are located at the two ends of the tank length.

112. Vertical flow sedimentation tank: also known as vertical sedimentation tank, a sedimentation tank in which wastewater flows vertically. The plane figure of the pool body is round or square, and the water enters the pool from top to bottom through a water inlet pipe located in the center of the pool. The sludge is deposited by its own weight.

113. Amplitude flow sedimentation tank: Wastewater enters the tank from the inlet pipe in the center of the tank, and flows slowly to the periphery of the tank along the radius. The suspended matter settles in the flow and enters the sludge bucket along the slope of the bottom of the pool. The clarified water overflows from the periphery of the pool and flows out of the channel.

114. Sludge tank: Generally, it is a tank used to hold backflow sludge and excess sludge.

115. Monitoring pool: also known as the clear pool, used to hold the treated sewage.

116. Coagulation: The process by which colloids lose their stability. Commonly known as colloidal destabilization.

117. Flocculation: The process of destabilizing colloids to coalesce into large-particle flocs.

118. Coagulation: The two-stage whole process of forming large-particle flocs through destabilization and flocculation. The general term for coagulation and flocculation

119. Metabolism: The exchange of substances and energy between the body and the external environment and the self-renewal process of substances and energy in the organism is called metabolism. Metabolism includes anabolism (assimilation) and catabolism (differentiation).

120. Microcolloids: Some bacteria are determined by their genetic characteristics. The bacteria adhere to each other in a certain arrangement and are surrounded by a common capsule to form a certain shape of bacterial groups, called microcolloids.

121. Filamentous bacteria: A type of bacteria with a filamentous structure. The skeleton of the micelle.

122. Autotrophic bacteria: bacteria that use inorganic carbon sources as carbon sources

123. Heterotrophic bacteria: bacteria that use organic carbon sources as carbon sources

124. Anaerobic environment: theoretically, anaerobic means that there is no molecular oxygen and no nitrate nitrogen. But it is impossible to achieve in actual work. In engineering, DO<0.2 is anaerobic.

125. Aerobic environment: both dissolved oxygen and nitrate nitrogen. In engineering, DO>0.5 is aerobic.

126. Anoxic environment: refers to the absence of molecular oxygen and nitrate nitrogen. In engineering, the DO is between 0.2 and 0.5 for hypoxia.

127. Activated sludge method: a sewage treatment method that is achieved through the adsorption, metabolism, and sludge water separation of bacterial micelles.

128. Biofilm method: A method of organic sewage treatment using microorganisms (ie, biofilm) attached to the surface of certain solid objects.

129. Hydraulic retention time: abbreviated as HRT, the term for water treatment technology, hydraulic retention time refers to the average residence time of the sewage to be treated in the reactor, that is, the average reaction time of the sewage and the microorganisms in the bioreactor.

130. Mud age: refers to the average residence time of microbial cells in the aeration tank. For the activated sludge method with backflow, the sludge age is the time (in days) required for an average renewal of sludge in the entire aeration tank.

131.SV: The 30-minute sedimentation ratio means that the mixed activated sludge mixture of the aeration tank is quickly poured into a 1000ml graduated cylinder to full scale. After standing for 30 minutes, the sedimentation sludge and the mixture will be taken. The volume ratio is the sludge sedimentation ratio (%), also known as the sludge sedimentation volume (SV30) expressed in mL/L. Because the sludge can generally reach or approach the maximum density after 30 minutes of sedimentation, this time is generally used as the standard time for the measurement of this index.

132.MLSS: Sludge concentration, the weight of dry sludge contained in 1 liter of aeration tank sludge mixture

133.MLVSS: The concentration of volatile suspended solids in the mixed liquid represents the concentration of the organic solids in the activated sludge of the mixed liquid.

134.RSS: The sludge concentration of the return sludge.

135.SVI: Sludge Volume Index, which is an index to measure the sedimentation performance of activated sludge. Refers to the volume (in mL) occupied by the corresponding 1g of dry sludge after the mixed solution of the aeration tank settles for 30 minutes, that is: SVI = sludge volume (mL) / dry weight of sludge ( g), that is, SVI=SV30/MLSS.

136. Internal reflux ratio: the ratio of the flow rate of the nitrification liquid reflux to the inlet water flow rate, generally expressed as a percentage, and the symbol is r.

137. External reflux ratio: also known as sludge reflux ratio, the ratio of the flow of returned sludge to the flow of influent. It is generally expressed as a percentage, and the symbol is R.

138. Inoculation: The process of adding activated sludge or granular sludge to the biochemical treatment system.

139. Domestication: A transformation process in order to gradually have the ability to treat specific industrial wastewater from the mature fecal sewage activated sludge.

140. Organic load: refers to the number of pollutants removed per unit mass of activated sludge per unit time.

141. Volume load: unit volume of aeration tank, the weight of pollutants removed in unit time.

142. Shock load: During the operation of sewage treatment, the amount of sludge is generally maintained at a certain level, and the volume of the reactor (aeration tank, anaerobic reactor, etc.) will of course not change. However, suppose the influent water quality changes considerably (COD soars or drops significantly). In that case, the sludge load and volume load will change greatly, which will affect the sludge microorganisms, which is the so-called shock load.

143.ORP: Redox potential, which is a measurement index of the redox ability of an aqueous solution, and its unit is mV.

144.DO: The molecular oxygen dissolved in water is called dissolved oxygen, usually recorded as DO, expressed in milligrams of oxygen per liter of water.

145. Aeration: A means to make air and water come into strong contact, the purpose of which is to dissolve oxygen in the air in the water, or to expel unwanted gases and volatile substances in the water into the air.

146. Oxygenation rate: In wastewater treatment, the ability of the aerator to supply oxygen to the liquid is called the oxygenation capacity, which is calculated in kg/(m3˙h) [10℃ or 20℃, 101.3kPa). The oxygenation capacity of the liquid per kilowatt hour is called the oxygenation efficiency.

147. Push-flow activated sludge method: Sewage is evenly pushed and flowed. Wastewater enters from the head of the tank and flows out from the end of the tank. The front stream and the back stream do not mix.

148. Sequencing batch activated sludge method: an activated sludge wastewater treatment technology operated by intermittent aeration. Its main feature is orderly and intermittent operation in operation.

149. Microscopic examination: short for microscopic examination. That is, the specimens to be inspected are sampled, made into slices, and observed, analyzed, and judged under a microscope.

150. Protozoa: Protozoa is the lowest class of eukaryotic unicellular animals in the animal kingdom. Individuals are composed of single cells.

151. Metazoa: the general term for all other animals except protozoa (metazoa subkingdom).

152. Non-filamentous bacteria swelling: non-filamentous bacteria caused by the accumulation of a large amount of highly viscous substances (such as polysaccharides formed by glucose, mannose, arabinose, rhamnose and deoxyribose) in the micelle bacteria Swell.

153. Filamentous bacteria swelling: swelling of sludge filamentous bacteria caused by the multiplication of a large number of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

154. Peroxidation: Microorganisms continue to oxidize themselves when oxygen is sufficient and nutrients are insufficient, that is, carbon sources in sewage are insufficient.

155. Exogenous respiration: Under normal circumstances, microorganisms use energy supplied from the outside to carry out respiratory metabolism called exogenous respiration.

156. Endogenous respiration: If there is no supply of energy from the outside world, it is called endogenous respiration to use the energy stored in the body to carry out respiration and metabolism.

157. Aging: The disintegration of sludge caused by excessive sludge age, long-term low load or over-oxidation.

158. Excess sludge: refers to the activated sludge discharged from the secondary sedimentation tank (or sedimentation area) in the activated sludge system.

159. Ammonification: refers to the process in which nitrogen-containing organic matter such as protein, urea and other microorganisms decompose and transform into ammonia.

160. Nitrification: refers to the process in which ammonia is oxidized to nitric acid under the action of microorganisms.

161. Denitrification: refers to the biochemical process in which bacteria reduce nitrogen (N) in nitrate (NO3−) to nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate products (NO2−, NO, N2O).

162. Short-cut nitrification and denitrification: Short-cut nitrification means that NH3 generates nitrite and no longer produces nitrate; and the direct generation of N2 from nitrite is called short-cut denitrification.

163. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification: Nitrification and denitrification reactions often occur under the same processing conditions and in the same processing space. Therefore, these phenomena are called simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND).

164. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation: the biological reaction process in which anammox bacteria use nitrite as an electron acceptor to oxidize ammonia nitrogen to nitrogen under anoxic conditions.

165. Breakpoint chlorination: NH3-N in wastewater can be oxidized to chloramine (NH2Cl, NHCl2, NCl3) at an appropriate pH value using chlorine-based oxidants (such as Cl2, NaOCl), and then oxidized and decomposed into chloramines (NH2Cl, NHCl2, NCl3) N2 gas to achieve the purpose of removal.

166. Struvite method: the use of magnesium ions, ammonium ions, and phosphates in water to form magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation to remove ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus.

167. Biological Phosphorus Removal: The process of using the excessive phosphorus absorption characteristics of phosphorus accumulating bacteria to achieve phosphorus removal.

168. Chemical Phosphorus Removal: The process of removing phosphorus by using the principle of the formation of precipitation between phosphate and certain metal ions.

169. Phosphorus removal by gasification: The process by which phosphate forms phosphine under the action of microorganisms.

170. Sludge drying: The process of removing most of the water content from sludge through percolation or evaporation.

171. Anaerobic reactor: a special reactor set up for anaerobic treatment technology.

172. Anaerobic granular sludge: the granular sludge produced by the upflow anaerobic sludge bed and similar reactors, the hollow is close to circular, mainly composed of inorganic sediments and extracellular polysaccharides, and a variety of microorganisms live Together, they can effectively remove pollutants in wastewater.

173. Aerobic granular sludge: It is granular activated sludge formed by the self-aggregation of microorganisms in an aerobic environment.

174. MBR: Also known as membrane bioreactor, it is a new type of water treatment technology that combines a membrane separation unit and a biological treatment unit. Use membrane to replace the secondary sedimentation tank.

175. Advanced oxidation: The process of oxidative degradation of pollutants in sewage that cannot be oxidized by ordinary oxidants by generating hydroxyl radicals.

176. Hydroxyl radical: It is an important active oxygen, which is formed by the loss of an electron from hydroxide (OH-) from the molecular formula. Hydroxyl radicals have a very strong ability to obtain electrons, that is, oxidation ability, with an oxidation potential of 2.8v. It is the oxidizing agent second only to fluorine in nature.

177. Evaporation and crystallization: heating to evaporate the solvent to make the solution change from unsaturated to saturated, continue to evaporate, the excess solute will be crystallized, called evaporative crystallization.

178. Halophages: refers to a type of bacteria and microorganisms with a specific physiological structure that can only survive in a salty environment.

179. Reuse of reclaimed water: It is to treat domestic sewage (or urban sewage) or industrial wastewater through advanced technology to remove various impurities, remove toxic and harmful substances and certain heavy metal ions that pollute the water body, and then disinfect and sterilize the water body. It is colorless, tasteless, clear and transparent, and meets or is better than the national standards for miscellaneous water (or related regulations), and is widely used in enterprise production or residents’ lives.

180. Zero discharge: refers to the reuse of industrial water, which is concentrated with high salt content and pollutants into waste water (over 99%) for recycling, or using a filter press to filter out water-insoluble substances and then recycle Use, without any waste liquid discharged from the factory.

Please click below to watch the production process of water treatment equipment

John Lau.

John Lau.

John Lau, a project manager holding an engineering bachelor's degree, became fascinated with optimizing beverage production equipment during his university days. As an overseas project manager, he firmly believes that educating clients on achieving efficient workflows through customized equipment design is one of the most impactful aspects of his job.

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